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8 Buitengewone verhale van mans en vroue in oorlogstyd

8 Buitengewone verhale van mans en vroue in oorlogstyd


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Hierdie artikel is 'n geredigeerde transkripsie van My Mum & Dad - Peter Snow & Ann MacMillan op Dan Snow's Our Site, die eerste keer uitgesaai op 6 Oktober 2017. U kan gratis na die volledige episode hieronder luister of na die volledige podcast op Acast.

Die gewone mense wat vasgevang is in die oorlog en hul ervarings, tragedies, suksesse en geluk is 'n groot deel van die verhaal van dramatiese konflikte. Hier is agt mense wie se buitengewone oorlogstydverhale dikwels oor die hoof gesien is, maar tog ongelooflik oortuigend en belangrik is.

1. Edward Seager

Edward Seager het as 'n huzaar in die Krim geveg. Hy het in die aanklag van die ligte brigade aangekla en oorleef, maar is ernstig gewond.

Dit was 'n vreeslike, verskriklike verhaal, maar daarna is nog lank niks van Seager gehoor nie. Sy verhaal het egter uiteindelik aan die lig gekom toe sy ousus ('n vriend van Peter Snow en Ann MacMillan) die huzaar se dagboek vervaardig het-wat op sy hok was.

2. Krystyna Skarbek

Krystyna Skarbek was Pools en toe Duitsland Pole in 1939 binneval, wat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog veroorsaak het, het sy dit na Londen geneem en vrywillig aangesluit om by die SOE, die Special Operations Executive, aan te sluit.

Skarbek, wat gesê word dat hy die gunsteling spioen van Winston Churchill was, was uiters doeltreffend en het onderduik na Pole gegaan, gehelp om die Poolse verset te organiseer en verslae oor Duitse troepebewegings terug te stuur.

Sy het selfs die eerste fotografiese getuienis aan een van haar Poolse koeriers gegee dat die Duitsers troepe na die Russiese grens opskuif.

Die foto's het op Churchill se lessenaar beland, tesame met 'n paar ander stukkies inligting, en hy het Stalin eintlik gewaarsku dat die Duitsers op die punt staan ​​om dit aan te skakel. En Stalin het gesê: “Nee. Ek glo jou nie. Ek dink dit is 'n geallieerde komplot om my ooreenkoms met Duitsland te beëindig. " Hoe verkeerd was hy nie.

Die ander interessante ding van Christine Granville, soos Skarbek ook tydens haar spioenasie -loopbaan bekend gestaan ​​het, is dat sy uiters aantreklik vir mans was en dat sy lief was vir mans. Sy het dus verskeie sake gehad terwyl sy 'n spioen was.

Na die oorlog het sy dit egter ongelukkig baie moeilik gevind om weer in die burgerlike lewe in te skakel. Sy het uiteindelik werk gekry op 'n vaartuig waar sy 'n verhouding met 'n medewerker gehad het. Maar toe sy dit afskakel, steek hy haar dood in die smerige gang van 'n Londense hotel.

Dan gesels met professor Micheal Tarver, uitvoerende sekretaris - Southeast World History Association (SEWHA), wat 'n momentopname van die geskiedenis van Venezuela tot op hede gee.

Luister nou

3. Helen Thomas

Helen Thomas se man, Edward Thomas, was 'n digter. En hy gaan veg in die Slag van Arras in Frankryk in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, en word daar vermoor in 1917. Helen skryf 'n verslag oor haar laaste dae saam met haar man en dit is ongelooflik roerende dinge.

4. Franz von Werra

Franz von Werra was een van die min Nazi -vlieëniers in die Luftwaffe wat eintlik uit die Britse krygsgevangenekampe ontsnap het. Hy het daarin geslaag om twee keer in Brittanje te ontsnap en daarna is hy na Kanada gestuur.

Gedurende een van sy ontsnappings, het Werra probeer om 'n Hurricane Fighter te sweep om terug te gaan na Duitsland, en hy het dit amper gekry totdat die stasiebeampte besef het dat hy deur 'n kaptein aangeval is wat beweer het dat hy 'n Nederlandse vlieënier was wat met die Royal Air Force veg . En so was Werra edel.

Hy is daarna na Kanada gestuur, wat volgens die Britte 'n slim ding was om met Duitsers te doen omdat Kanada so ver was. Maar dit was toevallig ook baie naby aan 'n land wat in 1941 nog neutraal was: die Verenigde State.

Dus besluit Werra: 'Wag, as ek oor die Saint Lawrence -rivier in die VSA kan kom, is ek veilig'. En hy het oorgekom.

Dit was Januarie. Die rivier was styf gevries en Werra het daaroor gestap en is uiteindelik teruggevlieg na Duitsland. Hitler was opgewonde en het vir hom die Ysterkruis gegee.

5. Nicholas Winton

Winton het die lewens van byna 1 000 kinders voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gered, maar was ongelooflik beskeie daaroor. Krediet: cs: Gebruiker: Li-sung / Commons

Nicholas Winton het Kindertransport gereël, 'n reddingspoging waarby treine kinders van Tsjeggo -Slowakye na Londen geneem het net voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in 1939 uitgebreek het.

Drie Jode wat kinders op sy treine was - waarvan almal se ouers in konsentrasiekampe gesterf het - het gesê dat dit baie lank geneem het om uit te vind wie hul lewens werklik gered het omdat Winton vreeslik beskeie was en niemand regtig vertel het wat hy gedoen het.

Dit was slegs 50 jaar nadat dagboeke en plakboeke aan die lig gekom het wat sy verhaal onthul het en hy 'n nasionale held geword het. Winton se vrou het hierdie plakboeke op hul solder gevind en hom gevra wat dit is, en hy het gesê: 'O ja, ek het 'n paar kinders gered'.

Dit blyk dat hy voor die oorlog byna 1 000 kinders uit Tsjeggo -Slowakye gered het.

Hier is 'n kersgeskenk om jou tone te laat tik. Sam Willis ontmoet die volksanger Jim Causley om 'n verskeidenheid feestelike deuntjies te bespreek en op te voer.

Kyk nou

6. Laura Secord

Laura Secord is beroemd in Kanada omdat sy 20 myl gestap het tydens die oorlog van 1812 om die Britte - wat deur Kanadese milisie gehelp is - te waarsku dat die Amerikaners sou aanval. Sy het in die duister geraak nadat dit gebeur het, en dit was eers 50 jaar later dat haar verhaal bekend geword het.

Toe die Britse prinsregent Edward, die oudste seun van koningin Victoria, Kanada besoek het vir 'n toer deur die Niagara -waterval, het hy 'n klomp getuienisse van mense ontvang, herinneringe aan wat in die oorlog van 1812 gebeur het, en een daarvan was deur Secord.

Laura Secord het op 80 -jarige ouderdom 'n nasionale heldin in Kanada geword.

Hy het dit huis toe geneem Londen toe, dit gelees en gesê: "O, dit is interessant" en het haar £ 100 gestuur.

Dus het die liewe ou 80-jarige mevrou Secord, wat in die duisternis geleef het, skielik £ 100 van die prins van Wallis ontvang en beroemd geword.

Die koerante het die storie gekry en sy het 'n nasionale heldin geword.

7. Augusta Chiwy

Augusta Chiwy was 'n swart Kongolese vrou wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog in België gewoon het en wat 'n verpleegster geword het.

Toe die Duitsers in 1944 uit België gestoot is, het Chiwy besluit om eendag by haar ouers te gaan kuier in 'n oulike plek met die naam Bastogne. Tydens haar besoek besluit Hitler om 'n groot teenaanval te doen, wat die Slag van die Bulge genoem word, en die Duitsers kom terug in België, omring Bastogne en begin Amerikaners doodmaak in hul honderde en duisende.

En Chiwy, wat in wese met vakansie was, het wonderlik by die geleentheid aangekom en hierdie Amerikaanse soldate verpleeg.

Een Amerikaanse dokter was ook daar en hy werk baie nou saam met Chiwy. Hulle was destyds amper die enigste twee mediese mense in Bastogne.

Sommige van die gewonde Amerikaners, veral uit die suide van Amerika, die suidelike state, het gesê: 'Ek gaan nie deur 'n swartman behandel word nie'. En hierdie dokter het gesê: 'Wel, in hierdie geval kan u sterf'.

Chiwy is in Augustus 2015 oorlede, 94 jaar oud.

8. Ahmad Terkawi

Ahmad Terkarwi besit 'n apteek in Homs in Sirië. Dit is uitgebombardeer en hy is nie eens seker wie dit gebombardeer het nie - of dit nou die Siriese regering of die rebelle was - maar dit het verdwyn. En dan het hy gehelp om 'n paar mense wat in Homs gewond is, te behandel en op 'n swartlys van die regering gekom, omdat sommige van die mense wat hy behandel het rebelle was. Hy het ook regeringsondersteuners behandel, maar hy is steeds op 'n swartlys geplaas.

Hy moes dus uit die land ontsnap, wat hy gedoen het, en dan het hy en sy vrou en twee klein kinders die verskriklike reis van Jordanië na Griekeland, via Turkye, gemaak.

Hy het 'n smokkelaar £ 7 000 betaal om hulle na 'n Griekse eiland te neem, en hulle het die reis in die donker nag gemaak. Toe hulle by die eiland kom, het die smokkelaar gesê: 'Ag, ek kan nie nader in hierdie boot kom nie, want daar is rotse. Jy sal moet uitklim en swem. ”

Daarom het Terkarwi gesê: 'Ek gaan nie saam met my seuns van een en vier jaar oud om te swem nie. Neem my terug na Turkye ”. En die smokkelaar sê: "Nee, ek neem jou nie terug nie en jy sal swem". 'Nee, ek sal nie,' sê Terkawi en die smokkelaar herhaal: 'Jy sal swem', voordat hy Terkawi se vierjarige kind optel en in die water gooi.

Professor Michael Scott praat oor die veranderende persepsies van goedere en mense op die vroeë sypad.

Kyk nou

Terkarwi het ingespring en daarin geslaag om sy seun in die donker te vind.

Toe tel die smokkelaar die eenjarige op en gooi hom ook in die water. En so spring Terkarwi se vrou uit die boot.

Hulle het albei daarin geslaag om die kinders te vind en na die strand te swem, maar hulle het al hul besittings op die boot agtergelaat.

Die smokkelaar het al hul goed teruggeneem na Turkye, en die gesin moes toe deur Europa kom, en hulle het verskriklike dinge met hulle laat gebeur. Maar uiteindelik beland hulle in Swede.


Sien die geskiedenis van die Wêreldbeker vir vroue in 8 buitengewone oomblikke

Kontak Ons by [email protected]

Op 30 November 1991 het Michelle Akers, middel, twee doele aangeteken vir die VSA om die eerste FIFA -wêreldkampioenskap vir vroue se voetbal te wen. Sy word hier gesien terwyl sy die trofee vashou saam met spanmaats Julie Foudy, links, en Carin Jennings, regs.

Op 10 Julie 1999 het Brandi Chastain die vyfde en laaste doel in 'n strafdoelstryd aangeteken om die VSA tot 'n oorwinning oor China te lei. Haar beroemde viering het die oomblik een van die mees ikoniese in die sportgeskiedenis gemaak.

Op 12 Oktober 2003 het Nia Kuenzer van Duitsland die wendoel aangeteken teen Kristin Bengtsson van Swede tydens oortyd in die eindstryd. Sy word die eerste vrou wat die Duitse titel en#8220Goal of the Year ” gewen het vir haar laatwedstryd.

Op 27 September 2007 behaal Marta van Brasilië een van die mees onvergeetlike wedstrydwenners in die geskiedenis van die Wêreldbeker vir vroue. Die doel wen Brasilië in die halfeindstryd teen die VSA

Dit was nie net deur haar vaardighede dat Engeland, Kelly Smith, die wêreld se aandag getrek het nie. Haar beroemde viering nadat sy op 11 September 2007 teen Japan aangeteken het, het haar as 'n beroemde vrou in die Wêreldbeker -toernooi bevestig.

Die eindstryd van 30 September 2007 was werklik 'n wedstryd tussen 'n onstuitbare krag (Brasilië het 17 doele in die eindstryd aangeteken) en 'n onroerende voorwerp (Duitsland het nie 'n enkele doel prysgegee nie). Uiteindelik het Duitsland die oorhand gekry en hul volmaakte verdedigingswedloop behou, die wedstryd met 2-0 gewen en die eerste span geword wat die rugbyspeler vir vroue en die#8217s gewen het.

Na 120 minute gereelde tyd en ekstra tyd was die VSA en Brasilië op 10 Julie 2011 in 'n 2-2-kragmeting in die kwarteindronde vasgesluit. Abby Wambach het 'n gelykopwedstryd aangeteken om die wedstryd na 'n strafdoelstryd te bring waar Hope Solo het twee duikbesparings gemaak om die VSA tot oorwinning te bring.

Slegs maande na die verwoestende aardbewing aan die kus van Japan, het die Japannese hul eerste Wêreldbeker-oorwinning vir vroue op 17 Julie 2011 gebalanseer. -1 ten gunste van Japan.


“A Touch of Zen ” (1969)

Die naam van die Taiwanese filmmaker King Hu verskyn verskeie kere op hierdie lys, en met goeie rede. Die regisseur was jare lank die mees algemene skepper van wuxia-films, en sy klassieke 1969 “A Touch of Zen ” is een van die eerste wuxia-rolprente wat die genre die internasionale toekenning wat dit so verdien verdien, teweeg gebring het, en dit het ook 'n goeie rol gespeel. 'n Palme d ’Of benoeming tydens die Cannes -rolprentfees in 1975. In “A Touch of Zen, maak 'n stom en ondoeltreffende provinsiale skilder die toorn van 'n korrupte eunug ('n algemene antagonis in wuxia -films) wanneer hy 'n pragtige jong vlugteling help lê. Die vlugteling, Yang, blyk die dogter te wees van 'n edelman wat deur die eunug vermoor is, en terwyl die twee terugveg, eindig Yang 'n groot meerderheid van die swaar werk. Yang, vinnig, intelligent en veel meer bekwaam as haar bedwelmde metgesel, sny haar vyande af en wreek haar pa, en bereik selfs verligting tydens die nabye film.


8 Buitengewone verhale van mans en vroue in oorlogstyd - Geskiedenis

[Uittreksels hieronder is uit hoofstukke 2, 5 en 6 van oorlog en geslag]

Vir meer inligting oor hierdie boek, klik hieronder:

Oorlog en geslag: hoe geslag die oorlogstelsel vorm en omgekeerd
Joshua S. Goldstein
(Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Besoek die besprekingsforum oor vroue in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog
Op gewilde aanvraag! Vir almal wat môre 'n skoolverslag het oor vroue se rolle in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, plaas ek uittreksels uit my boek hieronder. Noem die boek-"Goldstein, Joshua S. War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge University Press, 2001"-en gebruik aanhalingstekens by aanhaling :-)

Raadpleeg die volgende boeke as u verslag nie môre betaalbaar is nie:

Braybon, Gail en Penny Summerfield. 1987. Out of the Cage: Women's Experiences in Two World Wars. Londen: Pandora.

Berkman, Joyce. 1990. Feminisme, oorlog en vredespolitiek: die geval van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. In Elshtain en Tobias, redakteurs, Women, Militarism, and War: Essays in History, Politics, and Social Theory. Savage, MD: Rowman en Littlefield, pp. 141–60.

Gavin, Lettie. 1997. Amerikaanse vroue in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog: hulle het ook diens gedoen. University Press van Colorado.

Hewitt, Linda. 1974. Vroue -mariniers in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog Washington, DC: Afdeling geskiedenis en museums, hoofkwartier, US Marine Corps.

Higonnet, Margaret Randolph, Jane Jenson, Sonya Michel en Margaret Collins Weitz, red. 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Hirschfeld, Magnus. 1934. Die seksuele geskiedenis van die wêreldoorlog. New York: Panurge Press.

Holmes, Katie. 1995. ‚Day Mothers and Night Sisters: First World War Nurses and Sexuality. In Damousi and Lake eds .: 43 59.

Reilly, Catherine W. 1987. Scars Upon My Heart: Women's Poetry and Vers of the First World War. Virago.

Schneider, Dorothy en Carl J. Schneider. 1991. Into the Breach: Amerikaanse vroue oorsee in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. New York: Viking.

Klik hier vir meer boeke oor BRITSE vroue in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.


Webwerwe oor vroue in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog:
Webwerf deur Spartacus Educational (UK)
Webwerf deur kaptein Barbara A. Wilson, USAF (Ret)
WIMSA -bladsy oor Amerikaanse verpleegsters in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog

Britse plakkaat, Eerste Wêreldoorlog
Uittreksels uit hoofstukke 2, 5 en 6 van Joshua S. Goldstein se oorlog en geslag:
[Verwysings vir aangehaalde werke word hier gelys]

Ondersteuningsrolle vir vroue in die wêreldoorloë Tot en met die uitbreek van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het feministe aan beide kante toegesê tot vrede, in transnasionale vroue se solidariteit. Binne maande na die uitbreek van die oorlog het al die groot feministiese groepe van die strydlustiges 'n nuwe belofte gegee om hul onderskeie regerings te ondersteun. organiseerders van vroue ter ondersteuning van die oorlogspoging. Baie van hierdie feministe het gehoop dat patriotiese ondersteuning van die oorlog die vooruitsigte vir vroulike stemreg na die oorlog sou verbeter, en dit het in 'n aantal lande waar geword. (Sien vroulike fabriekswerkers, bl. 384 㫸.) 171

Die meer as 25 000 Amerikaanse vroue wat in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in Europa gedien het, het dit op ondernemingsbasis gedoen, veral voor 1917. Hulle het gehelp om die gewondes te verpleeg, kos en ander voorrade aan die weermag te verskaf, as telefoonoperateurs te dien (die “Hello Girls & #148), vermaak troepe en werk as joernaliste. Baie van hierdie self gekose avontuurlustige vroue het hul eie werk gevind, hul eie gereedskap geïmproviseer en het aangevoer, oortuig en gesoek na voorraad. Hulle het nuwe organisasies geskep waar niemand bestaan ​​het nie. ” Ten spyte van ontberings, het die vroue hulle baie geniet dat hulle gegaan het. vermaak verskaf, knope aansteek, sigarette en lekkers uitdeel – is baie vrouens ” gestuur om die seuns reguit te hou. ” Weermagpogings om vroue agter te hou, was moeilik. Vroue het aanhou om bevele om die troepe waarna hulle opgepas het, te verlaat en weer terug te waai nadat hulle agterna gestuur is. oor die gevolge van gevegte. As ek terugkyk, toon die Amerikaanse vroue teenstrydige gevoelens en#148 van hartseer oor die oorlog, afgryse oor wat hulle gesien het en trots op hul eie werk. Mary Borden, 'n miljoenêr uit Baltimore wat van 1914 tot 1918 'n hospitaal -eenheid aan die voorkant opgerig het, skryf: Net soos jy jou klere na die wasgoed stuur en dit herstel wanneer hulle terugkom, stuur ons ons manne na die loopgrawe en herstel hulle as hulle weer terugkom. U stuur u sokkies weer en weer net soveel keer as wat hulle dit sal deurstaan. En dan gooi jy hulle weg. En ons stuur ons manne telkens na die oorlog … tot hulle dood is. ” 172

Die Amerikaanse Elsie Janis het in 1914 vir Britse en Franse troepe opgetree en Bob Hope het in haar toewyding om die soldaat te vermaak, verwag.#148 Vroue -entertainers is deur troepe ridderlik behandel, nie as seksvoorwerpe nie. Doughboys het hulle sleg gedra teenoor Franse vroue, maar het Amerikaanse kinders op 'n voetstuk geplaas wat gegroei en gegroei het, ” soos Janis dit gestel het. Een vrou wat saam met 200 deegjongens in 'n kantien naby die voorkant gebly het, het gesê sy sal gemaklik voel om 'n 16-jarige dogter alleen daar te laat, want as iemand haar met sy vinger aanraak, sal hierdie seuns hom in duisend stukke skeur . ” Vroue vermaak troepe nie net met sang en dans nie, maar met lesings, dramatiese voorlesings en poësie. Troepe raas vir Ella Wheeler Wilcox se voorlesings van haar eie sentimentele gedigte en dring aan op seksuele reinheid: ek lê miskien in die modder van die loopgrawe, / ek kan stink van bloed en modder, / maar ek sal beheer, deur die God in my siel, / The might of my man ’s desire. moet nooit vergeet nie, solank ek die geseënde wit rok leef wat sy gehad het die aand toe sy vir ons voorgedra het. Ons het jare lank nie 'n wit rok gesien nie. Daar was ons met ons gasmaskers waaksaam, almal gereed om die tou in te gaan, en daar het sy met ons gepraat, net soos 'n meisie van die huis af. Dit was beslis 'n wonderlike gesig, jy wed. ” 173

Harriot Stanton Blatch in 1918 (met 'n onderskrywing van Teddy Roosevelt) het Amerikaanse vroue en die regering aangespoor om vrouemag ” te mobiliseer vir die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Een van die redes waarom Amerikaanse vroue die oorlogspoging ondersteun, was die karakter van die Pruisiese kultuur wat brute mag verheerlik, mans se oorheersing van vroue ondersteun en kinders hard behandel. Vir mans wat twyfel oor die toetrede van vroue tot die arbeidsmag, het Blatch aangevoer dat elke spier, elke brein, gemobiliseer moet word om die nasionale doel te bereik. ” Blatch prys vroue se bydraes in Brittanje, waar die deelname aan die oorlogspoging vroue helder gemaak het en gelukkig gemaak het. ” Sy beskryf Engeland as “ 'n wêreld van vroue – vroue in uniforms en#133 verpleegsters en#133 boodskappers , portiere, hysbakke, tramgeleiers, bankklerke, boekhouers, winkeliers … Selfs 'n vrou wat vroulike werk doen en#133 'n kamer afstof vir die goeie van haar land … Hulle was gelukkig in hul werk, gelukkig in die gedagte om diens te lewer, so bly dat die skerpheid van individuele verlies makliker gedra is. . Een vrou het geskryf dat sy amper mal was van vreugde en dat sy na Serwië gestuur is om oorlogswerk te doen. Vroue aan die voorkant gebruik 'n heel ander taal as dié wat tuis is, en volgens die woorde van een iets verborge en geheimsinnig en uiters dringend. nuwe sintuie en 'n nuwe siel. ” 174

Die Wêreldoorloë het geslagsverhoudinge opgeskud, maar slegs tydelik. Individuele Britse vroue in die Wêreldoorloë het in oorlogstyd nuwe vryhede en geleenthede gevind, soos om uit 'n hok uitgehaal te word, en 148 in een vrou se woorde. Geslagsveranderinge was egter van korte duur. Die houdings teenoor [vrouens] se rolle tuis en op die werk het oor bykans vyftig jaar opvallend konsekwent gebly. Beide oorloë het konvensionele sienings oor geslagsrolle onder druk geplaas, maar daar het geen permanente verandering plaasgevind in die vyandigheid teenoor vroue wat deur mans gedomineer word nie, die devaluasie van vroulike arbeid en die enigste vroulike verantwoordelikheid vir die huislike lewe. 175

Die heropbou van geslag ” in Brittanje na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het vroue se rolle beperk en die ideologie van moederskap weer versterk. Die feministiese beweging het na die oorlog nooit weer die status gekry as 'n massa -beweging wat dit voor die oorlog gehad het nie. Waar vooroorlogse feministe geveg het teen afsonderlike manlike en vroulike sfere en verskillende konstruksies van manlikheid en vroulikheid, het feministe in die tussenoorlogse periode geleidelik teorieë oor seksuele verskil aanvaar wat gehelp het om idees oor afsonderlike sfere te bevorder. ” Na die gruwelike gebeurtenisse &# #148 van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, die Britse samelewing, en veral om 'n gevoel van vrede en veiligheid te herstel, en dit het die egalitêre feminisme van die vooroorlogse jare uitgeskakel, maar eerder 'n feminisme van afsonderlike sfere, om te verhoed dat dit verhoed word die mans tot woede. ” 176

Verskeie groot verskille onderskei die twee Wêreldoorloë en#146 effekte op vroue. Die eerste oorlog het meer gekonsentreerde optrede gehad, aan die Westelike front en in statiese loopgraafoorlogvoering, wat burgerlikes relatief veilig gelaat het, terwyl die tweede oorlog meer totaal was (meer burgers getrek) en meer beweeglik. In Brittanje was soldate uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog onsigbaar, terwyl die Amerikaanse en Britse magte in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog 'n baie sigbare teenwoordigheid was, die blits Londen geteiken het en vegvlieëniers daagliks die vyand kon bestry en by kroeë naby lugbase kon drink in die nag. Die eerste oorlog was meer 'n verrassing vir die Britte. Alhoewel albei oorloë tot 'n tekort aan noodsaaklike goedere gelei het, het die tweede oorlog dit baie moeiliker gemaak vir tuisteskeppers om dit te vergoed. Belangriker nog, wat geslagsrolle betref, was vroue in die weermag in die eerste oorlog hoofsaaklik beperk tot baie alledaagse werk, soos skoonmaak, kook, kantoorbediening, kelnerin en bestuur, maar ook in 1939 en#15045 #133 vroue het lugafweergewere hanteer, die kommunikasienetwerk bestuur, vliegtuie reggemaak en selfs van basis tot basis gevlieg.

Rusland Gedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het sommige Russiese vroue selfs tydens die tsaarperiode aan die geveg deelgeneem. Hierdie vroue, gemotiveer deur 'n kombinasie van patriotisme en 'n begeerte om aan 'n saai bestaan ​​te ontsnap, het meestal as mans gekleed. 'N Paar het egter openlik as vroue gedien. Die [tsaristiese] regering het geen konsekwente beleid oor vroulike vegters nie. Die eerste vrouevlieënier van Rusland is as 'n militêre vlieënier geweier en besluit om te bestuur en te verpleeg. 'N Ander vlieënier is egter vir aktiewe diens aangewys. 32

Die bekendste vrouesoldate was die Bataljon van die Dood. ” Sy leier, Maria Botchkareva, 'n 25-jarige boeremeisie (met 'n geskiedenis van mishandeling deur mans), begin as 'n individuele soldaat in die Russiese weermag. Sy het daarin geslaag (met die ondersteuning van 'n geamuseerde plaaslike bevelvoerder) om toestemming van die tsaar te kry om as 'n gewone soldaat aan te meld. Nadat sy die gereelde seksuele vooruitgang en bespotting van haar manlike kamerade afgeweer het, het sy uiteindelik hul respek gewen, veral nadat sy saam met hulle in die geveg gedien het. Die outobiografie van Botchkareva beskryf verskeie verskriklike gevegstonele waarin die meeste van haar medesoldate doodgemaak is na Duitse masjiengeweerposisies, en een waarin sy 'n Duitse soldaat doodgemaak het. Na twee mislukte aanvalle het sy baie ure onder Duitse vuur gekruip om haar gewonde kamerade na veiligheid terug te sleep, en blykbaar honderde lewens gered tydens haar diens aan die front. Sy is verskeie kere ernstig gewond, maar het altyd teruggekeer na haar eenheid aan die voorkant nadat sy herstel het. Daar was duidelik 'n sterk band van kameraadskap tussen haar en die manlike soldate van haar eenheid. 33

Na die rewolusie in Februarie 1917 het Alexander Kerensky as minister van oorlog in die voorlopige regering Botchkareva toegelaat om 'n “Bataljon van die dood ” saam te stel wat uit honderde vroue bestaan. Die geskiedenis van hierdie bataljon is 'n bietjie troebel omdat beide anti- en pro-Bolsjewistiese skrywers dit gebruik het om politieke punte te maak. (Daarteenoor is die vroeëre fase van Botchkareva se militêre loopbaan geloofwaardiger.) Botchkareva se eie 1919-rekening is deur 'n toonaangewende anti-Bolsjewistiese ballingskap in die Verenigde State neergelê, wat sê dat hy na haar verhale geluister het in Russies oor 'n paar weke en het dit gelyktydig in Engels geskryf. Die vertelling is net 'n bietjie te polities korrek (vir 'n anti-Bolsjewistiese) is die verhale van haar heldedade 'n bietjie te konsekwent dramaties. Die taal en analise klink soms nie soos die woorde van 'n ongeletterde boer en soldaat nie, en die boek doen uitdruklik 'n beroep op buitelandse hulp vir Russiese anti-Bolsjewiste. (Louise Bryant ’s pro-Bolsjewistiese rekening is ewe onoortuigend.) 34

Botchkareva was in ooreenstemming met die faksie van Kornilov, wat dissipline in die weermag wou herstel en die oorlog teen Duitsland wou hervat, in teenstelling met die Bolsjewistiese program om die oorlog te beëindig en onmiddellike grondhervorming en beslaglegging op fabrieke tuis te neem. Gedurende die middel van 1917 het weermag-eenhede “ komitees ” verkies om die optrede van die eenheid te bespreek en te besluit. Botchkareva het in haar bataljon aangedring op tradisionele militêre bewind van bo, en het daarmee weggekom (hoewel slegs 300 van die oorspronklike 2 000 vroue) omdat die eenheid uniek was in die hele leër. Dit het Botchkareva geliefd by baie weermagoffisiere en anti-Bolsjewiste. Dit het haar bataljon ook in die middel van die offensief in Junie 1917 geplaas, en volgens#150 sê sy dat dit die enigste eenheid was wat aanvallend kon optree.

Die bataljon is gevorm in buitengewone omstandighede, in reaksie op 'n ineenstorting van moraal en dissipline in die Russiese weermag na drie aaklige jare van oorlog en die val van die tsaristiese regering. Uit eie rekening het Botchkareva die bataljon opgevat as 'n manier om die manne te beskaam om te veg (aangesien niks anders hulle laat veg het nie). Sy het aangevoer dat die getalle nie belangrik is nie, dat die belangrikste is om die mans te skaam en dat 'n paar vroue op 'n plek as voorbeeld vir die hele front kan dien. die manne in die loopgrawe deur die vroue eers bo -oor te laat gaan. ” Die bataljon was dus besonders en was in wese 'n propaganda -instrument. As sodanig is dit baie gepubliseer: Voordat ek tyd gehad het om dit te besef, was ek reeds in 'n fotograaf se ateljee. Die volgende dag was hierdie prentjie bo -op groot plakkate wat oral in die stad geplak is. ” Bryant het in 1918 geskryf: 'Geen ander kenmerk van die groot oorlog het die publiek ooit aangemoedig nie, soos die Death Battalion, saamgestel uit Russiese vroue. Ek het so baie van hulle gehoor voordat ek Amerika verlaat het …. ” 35

Die bataljon begin met ongeveer 2 000 vrywilligers en het toerusting, 'n hoofkwartier en 'n paar dosyne manlike offisiere as instrukteurs gekry. Botchkareva beklemtoon nie vegkrag nie, maar dissipline (die doel van die vrouesoldate was opofferend). Fisiese standaarde vir werwing was laer as vir mans. Sy het vir die vroue gesê: "Ons is fisies swak, maar as ons moreel en geestelik sterk is, sal ons meer as 'n groot mag bereik." #148 Sy beklemtoon meestal dat die soldate in haar bataljon tradisionele militêre dissipline moet volg, en nie komitees moet kies om te regeer soos die res van die weermag nie. Ek het hierdie bataljon nie so georganiseer dat dit soos die res van die leër was nie. Ons sou as voorbeeld dien, en nie net 'n paar byvoeg nie babas [vroue] aan die ondoeltreffende miljoene soldate wat nou oor Rusland woel. ” Toe die meeste vroue in opstand kom teen haar harde heerskappy, verwerp Botchkareva hardnekkige pleidooie van Kerensky en ander, insluitend direkte bevele van militêre meerderes – om toe te laat totstandkoming van 'n komitee. In plaas daarvan herorganiseer sy die oorblywende 300 vroue wat aan haar getrou gebly het, en bring hulle na die front, terwyl hulle herhaaldelike aanvalle deur die Bolsjewiste langs die pad afweer. Die bataljon het nuwe uniforms, 'n volledige reeks oorlogstoerusting en 18 man om hulle te bedien (twee instrukteurs, agt kokke, ses bestuurders en twee skoenmakers). 36

Die bataljon sou die offensief open wat Kerensky in Junie 1917 beveel het. (Sedert die rewolusie in Februarie was daar min gevegte en toenemende broederskap op die Russiese Duitse front.) Die Bolsjewiste was gekant teen die offensief, en die moeë, gedemoraliseerde soldate was nie gemotiveerd om daaraan deel te neem. Deur eers 300 vroue bo -aan die top te stuur, het Botchkareva voorgestel dat dit 'n opmars langs die hele front sou veroorsaak, en#150 14 miljoen Russiese soldate en#150 aangedryf deur die mans se skande om te sien hoe hulle susters in die stryd gaan, en#148 die mans se lafhartigheid. Toe die vasgestelde tyd vir die aanval aanbreek, het die mans weerskante van die vrouebataljon egter geweier om te beweeg. Die volgende dag het ongeveer 100 manlike offisiere en 300 manlike soldate wat die offensief voorgestaan ​​het, by die geledere van die vrouebataljon aangesluit, en dit was hierdie gemengde mag van 700 wat die aand die botoon gevoer het, in die hoop om die mans aan weerskante te kry om ook te vorder. Plaaslik het die taktiek gewerk, en die hele korps het gevorder en drie Duitse linies gevang (die mans stop egter by die tweede om onmiddellik alkohol te gebruik wat daar gevind word). Namate die Russiese lyn dun versprei het, het 'n ander korps wat veronderstel was om vorentoe te beweeg, geweier om voort te gaan. 'N Duur terugtog na die oorspronklike lyne het gevolg. Die skande -taktiek het misluk, behalwe vir 'n plaaslike effek, wat in elk geval soveel veroorsaak kan word deur kamerade onder skoot te sien as om skaam te voel oor vroue wat eerste gaan. Uiteindelik kom Botchkareva tot die slotsom oor die Russiese weermag, en die mans het geen skaamte geken nie.

Die bataljon wat eintlik op daardie dag geveg het, was baie anders as die vroulike eenheid wat eers georganiseer is. Die bataljon het aan die voorkant aangekom met 300 vroue en twee manlike instrukteurs. Voor die geveg het dit nog 19 manlike offisiere en instrukteurs ontvang, en 'n manlike adjudant van die slag is gekies. Tydens die laaste voorbereidings is 'n groot deel van agt masjiengewere en 'n bemanning bygevoeg om hulle te beman. Vir die eerste nag se offensief wat nie gerealiseer het nie, is ses manlike offisiere met gelyke tussenposes ingesit, met Botchkareva self aan die een kant en haar manlike adjudant in die middel. In die mag wat die volgende aand eintlik die botoon gevoer het met 400 manlike soldate en offisiere, was die “ -lyn so ingerig dat mans en vroue mekaar afwissel, terwyl 'n meisie deur twee mans geflankeer word. withering fire, “my brave girls [were] encouraged by the presence of men on their sides.” Although the women fighters clearly were brave, and one-third of them were killed or wounded, their effect (and indeed their purpose ) lay not in their military value – 300 soldiers could hardly make a difference among millions – but in their propaganda value. However, this latter effect did not materialize as hoped. 38

Other women’s battalions were formed in several other cities – apparently less than 1,000 women in all – but they suffered from a variety of problems, ranging from poor discipline to a lack of shoes and uniforms. These other units never saw combat. There was not another offensive before the Bolsheviks took power in October and sent most of the women soldiers home, telling them “to put on female attire.” 39

The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an all-female unit’s effectiveness in combat. Nonetheless, on one day in 1917, 300 women did go over the top side by side with 400 male comrades, advanced, and overran German trenches. The women apparently were able to keep functioning in the heat of battle, and were able to adhere to military discipline. These women were, of course, an elite sample of the most war-capable women in all of Russia. Nonetheless, they did it – advanced under fire, retreated under fire, and helped provide that crucial element of leadership by which other nearby units were spurred into action, overcoming the inertia of fatigue and committee rule. The Battalion of Death did this not as scattered individual women but as a coherent military unit of 300 women – instructed by Botchkareva that “they were no longer women, but soldiers.” 40

Verenigde State In World War I, 13,000 women enlisted in the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work–“the first [women in US history]….to be admitted to full military rank and status.” The Army hired women nurses and telephone operators to work overseas, but as civilian employees (although in uniform). Plans for women’s auxiliary corps – to perform mostly clerical, supply, and communications work – were shot down by the War Department. So were plans for commissioning women doctors in the Medical Corps. The end of the war brought an end to proposals to enlist women in the Army. 75

During World War I, a number of women participated individually in several armies. One of the most famous, Englishwoman Flora Sandes, fought with the Serbian army on the same terms as the men, and took an Austrian speaking tour in 1920. 138

Women shaming men into war Women are often active participants in shaming men to try to goad them into fighting wars. Recall the Russian women in World War I who went “over the top” to try to shame exhausted Russian soldiers into fighting again (see pp. 73㫣). In Britain and America during that war, women organized a large-scale campaign to hand out white feathers to able-bodied men found on the streets, to shame the men for failing to serve in combat. Not all women supported it: “Dealer in white feathers / … Can’t you see it isn’t decent, / To flout and goad men into doing, / What isn’t asked of you?” However, the Women of England’s Active Service League pledged never to be seen in public with an able-bodied man not serving in the military, and British recruiting posters told young men their women would reject them if they were “not in khaki” and meanwhile told the young women that men who refused to fight and die for them were not worthy of their affections. (The white feather campaign was briefly resurrected in World War II, and the British government had to issue badges for men exempt on medical grounds.) Some scholars object to blaming women for goading men into World War I. They argue that the poster claiming “Women of Britain Say, ‘Go!’” (see Figure 5.3) was propaganda devised by men to affect other men. “[M]any women tried to get their sons out of the army. Others were agitating to prevent conscription.” 58

Figure 5.3 “Women of Britain say, ‘Go!,’” poster, World War I. [Courtesy of the Imperial War Museum, London.]

The armies of twentieth-century total war depended on women in new ways, not only within the army (see pp. 64㫤, 88㫴) but in the civilian workforce (and in addition to the ongoing responsibilities of women for domestic, reproductive, and sexual work). In 1914, feminist Carrie Chapman Catt warned that “[w]ar falls on the women most heavily, and more so now than ever before.” Both Britain and the United States mobilized substantial numbers of women into war-related industries, and into the workplace generally to make male workers available for military use. These arrangements, although effective in boosting the war effort, almost everywhere were cast as temporary. They used, rather than challenged, existing gender stereotypes. 138

In World War I Britain, about 1 million mostly lower-class women worked in munitions jobs. They were called “munitionettes” or “Tommy’s sister.” Unlike nurses, the munitions workers could not profess pacifism since their work directly contributed to the fighting. In fact, in 1918, Scottish women working at a shell factory raised money and bought a warplane for the air force. However, the munitionettes’ main motivation was financial, contrary to the popular belief that it was patriotic. The women found the wages “at first livable and later lucrative.” Compared with domestic work, war work “offered escape from jobs of badly paid drudgery.” However, although they earned more than they would have doing women’s work, the women received nowhere near the fortunes they had been led to expect when deciding to take war work. 139

Eric Leed argues that World War I created for women “an enormously expanded range of escape routes from the constraints of the private family” because the war caused “the collapse of those established, traditional distinctions” that had restricted women. A Pons cartoon of the time shows a soldier’s wife who receives an allowance: “This war is’ eaven – twenty-five shillings a week and no ’usband bothering about!” Costello credits World War I with winning women both the vote and a “new liberation” in fashion and behavior (smoking, bobbed hair, short skirts, and hedonism). But for British women war workers in World War I, “no doubt conditions varied a lot.” Conditions worsened over time, making 1917㪪 “the hardest year of the war for civilians,” especially in the pan-European 1918 influenza epidemic. Some women complained of barracks-like hostels with poor food and little heat, whereas others found accommodations clean, if crowded, and occasionally even comfortable. Most often, though, the woman war worker had “little in her life now except work and sleep.” Work shifts of 10㪤 hours were “not uncommon.” Conditions in factories were, for women, an “alien environment” of deafening noise and depressing grime, encased by blacked-out windows. 140

Other scholars doubt that World War I was an exhilarating, erotic release for women who took on traditionally male roles. Some women who drove “trucks, cranes, cars, and motorbikes in Britain during the war did find it thrilling,” but many others were “killed, injured, and poisoned” in munitions factories. German women in World War I “shoulder[ed] double burdens,” working at heavy machinery but still responsible for their domestic duties. 141

Duitsland In World War I, when the expected quick victory turned to protracted war, German women entered industrial jobs (about 700,000 in munitions industries by the end of the war), and served as civilian employees in military jobs in rear areas (medical, clerical, and manual labor women trained for jobs in the signal corps late in the war but never deployed). German women won the vote after World War I, and some kept their jobs in industry. 28

Women’s peace movements In the twentieth century, the exemplary women’s peace organization is the Women’s Peace Party (WPP), founded during World War I and later renamed the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF). The WPP grew out of the international women’s suffrage movement. It was catalyzed by a US tour in Fall 1914 of a Hungarian woman and a British woman (from enemy sides in the new war). The WPP women “turned a good deal of their energies, in the midst of the suffrage campaign – which they did not abandon – to address the causes and cures of war.” 181

The WPP held an International Conference of Women at the Hague (Netherlands) nine months into World War I in 1915 (three months after the WPP’s founding). The conference called for mediation to end the war. Jane Addams chaired the conference, and the WPP. In spite of travel problems and government obstacles, 1,136 voting delegates from 150 organizations in 12 countries attended. The conference brought together women from enemy and neutral countries, a feat that one delegate contrasted with the failure of others: “Science, medicine, reform, labor, religion – not one of these causes has been able as yet to gather its followers from across dividing frontiers.” The participants were “a quite extraordinary group of gifted, courageous, and altruistic pioneers.” Critics, however, found “conspicuously absent … representatives of English, French, German, and Russian feminism.” Theodore Roosevelt called the meeting “silly and base.” Winston Churchill closed the North Sea to shipping, preventing most British delegates from attending. The British Admiralty also detained the US delegation’s ship – which the British press called a “shipload of hysterical women” and “feminine busybodies” – until the last minute. 182

When the United States entered World War I, some feminists remained antiwar activists, but faced difficult challenges as most of their colleagues supported the war effort. The YWCA’s work supporting soldiers in World War I “strained against – and temporarily overwhelmed – its historic pacifism.” Addams’s efforts to galvanize US opposition to World War I backfired as she “alienated American public opinion by daring to question the ‘heroism’ of war.” She was “instantly accused of besmirching the heroism of men dying for ‘home, country, and peace itself.’” She argued, based on visits to military hospitals in Europe, that soldiers were not natural killers and were victims of the sheer horror of mechanized war. Her critics took this to mean she thought men incapable of heroic self-sacrifice. After 1917, Addams “was increasingly isolated” in opposing the war. She admitted moving “from the mire of self-pity to the barren hills of self-righteousness and … hat[ing] herself equally in both places.” After the war, she was branded a traitor, Communist, and anarchist. However, she won the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. 183

Addams believed that mothers would be the first to protest the slaughter of their children in war, and that “women of civilization” could help end this senseless killing. However, she did not hold a polarized gender conception of war and peace. In 1915, she dismissed the “belief that a woman is against war simply because she is a woman … In every country there are women who believe that war is inevitable and righteous the majority of women as well as men in the nations at war doubtless hold that conviction.” 184

The first woman to serve in the US Congress, Jeannette Rankin, was a pacifist who voted against US participation in both World Wars.

32 De Pauw 1998, 214㪨, 207㪶 Hirschfeld 1934, 110㪯 Stites 1978, policy 280.

33 Botchkareva 1919, 71𤩸 Stites 1978, 280.

34 Botchkareva 1919, 154㫟 Stites 1978, 280 White 1994, 4ס, 13 Bryant 1918, 212, 216㪪.

35 Shame: Botchkareva 1919, 157, 207, 211, studio 161 Bryant 1918, 10.

36 Botchkareva 1919, began 163㫘, swarming 173, 172㫫, 202ס, uniforms 189, 192, 197.

37 Botchkareva 1919, sisters 207, knew 262.

38 Botchkareva 1919, adjutant 205, 208㪤.

40 Botchkareva 1919, soldiers 165.

75 Treadwell 1954, 6㪢, status 10 De Pauw 1998, 225㪵 Hewitt 1974.

138 Hirschfeld 1934, 111㪧 Wheelwright 1989, 29㪼, Sandes 14㪨, 147 De Pauw 1998, 212, 207㪶 Bourke 1999, 294㫹, 299𤬽.

58 Stites 1978, feathers 281 Tylee 1990, poem 258, agitating 257 Noakes 1998, resurrected 92, 183 Kent 1993, posters 27.

139 Woollacott 1994, 2, 7, belief 8, lucrative 1, drudgery 4, 10㪣 Woollacott 1996 Braybon and Summerfield 1987, fortunes 57㫒.

140 Leed 1979, expanded 45 Blatch 1918, bothering 56 Costello 1985, bobbed 3נ, little 156, shifts 159, grime 168 Braybon and Summerfield 1987, varied–comfortable 101מ Woollacott 1994, 4, 8, 50㫒.

141 Woollacott 1994, poisoned 209㪣 Blatch 1918, burdens 81.

171 Stites 1978, major 281 Woollacott 1994, 189, factory 198 Kent 1993, true 74㫸, 113.

172 Schneider and Schneider 1991, served 287㫱, hello 177㫯, fun 20㪭, canteen 118, bobbing 135, bloodthirsty 272, feelings 280㫩 Tylee 1990, 19㪯 Borden: Tylee 1990, 101.

173 Schneider and Schneider 1991, devotion 156, pedestal 267, finger 158, poems 161, dress 163.

174 Blatch 1918, 11㪦, 35㫓, happy 54, loss 55, 60㫭 Kent 1993, mad 51, soul 52.

175 Braybon and Summerfield 1987, cage ii, strain 2, 6 Tylee 1990, 7 Enloe 1989, 22.

177 Braybon and Summerfield 1987, 2ף, mundane 5 WWII: Bruce 1985 Pierson 1986 Damousi and Lake eds. 1995 Edmond and Milward eds. 1986 Ayers 1988 Fishman 1991 Ås 1982 Shukert and Scibetta 1988 Winfield 1984.

181 Degen 1939 Foster 1989 Bussey and Tims 1965, grew 17 Alonso 1996 Adams 1991, 210㪥, cures 211 Pois 1995 Washburn 1993, 139㫂 Wiltsher 1985.

182 International Women’s Committee of Permanent Peace 1915 Costin 1982 Addams 1922 Bussey and Tims 1965, frontiers 17 Oldfield 1995, gifted 159 Stites 1978, absent 281 Oldfield 1995, busybodies 159.

183 Boulding 1992/II, 225㫇 Berkman 1990 Kuhlman 1997 Jeffreys-Jones 1995, 1, 11㫘 Schneider and Schneider 1991, strained 139, 139㫈 Oldfield 1995, besmirching 161, isolated–places 162, 162㫙 Pois 1995.


Being brave in SE8: Extraordinary Heroes at the Imperial War Museum

Have you ever heard of Geoffrey Keyes and Operation Flipper?

I hadn’t until this week, when I learnt that Keyes was a Second World War commando who led a team 400km behind enemy lines in North Africa in a bid to assassinate Erwin Rommel. The group evaded guards around the perimeter fence and got inside the house used as the German HQ, but as they entered a ground-floor room Keyes was shot and killed. Rommel wasn’t even in the house at the time.

Keyes was awarded a posthumous Victoria Cross and his story is ripe for a film, but this is the first I’d heard of it.

The new Extraordinary Heroes gallery at the Imperial War Museum is full of such remarkable tales, 243 in all, each tied to either a Victoria or George Cross. 164 of these medals belong to Michael Ashcroft, the Tory party donor, who has also forked out £5m for a new gallery to house them – the first permanent gallery at the museum for a decade. Well, I guess it beats paying tax.

The gallery is a great example of how with a bit of thought a museum can make a lot out of a little. The exhibits – the medals – are not much to look at, and the VC itself is almost parodically tasteful, a modest thing of dull brass (it’s made of gun metal) with a sober ribbon the colour of dried blood. There are numerous medals on display here, and the VC is always the least conspicuous of the lot.

But the curators have done wonders with this unpromising material, emphasising the extraordinary stories behind each medal with frugal but compelling text and embellishing some of the tales with props such as the diving suit worn by James Magennis when placing mines on a target in 1945 or a portrait of recent VC awardee Johnson Beharry taken by Don McCullin.

There’s wit here as well such as a stuffed white rabbit to represent the codename of spy Forest Yeo-Thomas or the surprisingly effective touch-screen version of some of the stories told in Victor comic style. The IWM uses these informal touches confidently, never lapsing into poor taste and aware that excessive sobriety can be just as offputting.

While the bravery of these men and women is moving, the circumstances are often maddening. Many medals were awarded during the carnage of Gallipoli, and there was something about the story of Alfred Wilkinson, a Private who was awarded a VC for delivering a message during the First World War after four previous messengers had died, that somehow summed up all that is most horrific and pointless about that conflict.

Some medals were awarded in peacetime. An 11-year-old girl was given a George Cross in Canada in 1916 for fighting off a cougarm, while Harry Wilson was awarded a GC in 1924 for saving the lives of his colleagues in a flooded colliery.

And, bringing it all back home, a George Cross was awarded for bravery in South London after unarmed PC Tony Gledhill chased a car filled with armed robbers from Creekside Street, Deptford into Rotherhithe. Gledhill’s car was shot at around 15 times by the robbers before he confronted them on foot and eventually subdued the men, securing the conviction of four criminals, including John McVicar.


Segregation Was Widespread in California

Restaurants posted signs in their doors reading, “No dogs or Mexicans."ਊt movie theaters, Mexican Americans had to sit in the balcony, not the lower level. Public swimming pools had “Mexican Mondays” after which the pool was drained and cleaned before Anglo residents would step foot in it again.

The same de facto segregation existed in California public schools. By 1940, more than 80 percent of Mexican American students in California went to so-called “Mexican” schools, even though no California law mandated such a separation. (Legal segregation in California schools did exist for two other groups: Asian Americans and Native Americans.)

California school boards claimed that they put Mexican Americans in their own schools in order to help them. They used culturally biased I.Q. tests to argue that Mexican American students needed specialized instruction in English and other subjects. The school boards argued that students of Mexican heritage would 𠇊mericanize” faster if taught separately.

At the time, segregated schools were supposed to abide by the “separate but equal” clause established in 1896 by Plessy v. Ferguson. But just as in the segregated South, the “Mexican” schools in California were in terrible condition compared to the 𠇊merican” schools. And instead of receiving specialized instruction to improve their language and academic skills, Mexican American students were trained to become field workers and house cleaners. Most of the school board members were wealthy citrus farmers whose livelihoods depended on Mexican American labor.

“It was very much in the economic interest of the agricultural elite and the Anglo community at large to keep these people in a second-class position,” says Philippa Strum, a Global Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars, who wrote a book on the Mexican American anti-segregation movement in California.


Students doing their part

Meet some female students who are building and programming their own robots. Women outnumber men at Australian universities but when it comes to courses like engineering, men outnumber women. That's something "Robogals" is trying to change. (Years 7–10)

20. Motivating students to get involved in STEM

Amy Zhou took part in the 10th Asian Science Camp in India. She's passionate about getting more students, especially girls, involved in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics). We spoke to her about her vision for the future.

Visit the International Women's Day website for this year's theme and visit ABC Education for more classroom resources about inspirational women for primary and secondary students.

About this author

Ara Sarafian

Ara Sarafian is the editor at ABC Education.

Comments (2)

Donna Allen

05 March 2019, 05:29 PM (EST)

I don't think Natasha Stott Despoga is a good role model. She advocates only for women whom considers worthy and apparently this doesn't include girl babies who are allowed to be killed for no other reason than they aren't born yet. Any so called 'right' which tramples on the basic human right to life of another human being is no right at all. I am also a woman and also have had unplanned pregnancies in less than ideal situations. I don't think one right should trample another.

Akash Chowdhury

13 March 2019, 04:58 AM (EST)

Hi, I am Akash from LearnPick and found this article very interesting. Here, I have some views, the IWD refers to women, who believe that equality is not begged you have to achieve it through your intelligence, hard work, and learning capabilities. But still in many places women are still deprived of their basic needs. This should be eradicated by any means either by IWD or someone activist like Malala or else by every woman on earth. You can also check out our little initiative on LearnPick.


“A Touch of Zen” (1969)

Taiwanese filmmaker King Hu’s name appears multiple times on this list, and for good reason. For years, the director was the be-all-end-all creator of wuxia films, and his 1969 classic “A Touch of Zen” is one of the first wuxia films to bring the genre the international acclaim it so deserves, garnering a Palme d’Or nomination at the 1975 Cannes Film Festival. In “A Touch of Zen,” a bumbling and ineffectual provincial painter incurs the wrath of a corrupted eunuch (a common antagonist in wuxia films) when he helps a beautiful young fugitive lay low. The fugitive, Yang, turns out to be the daughter of a nobleman murdered at the hands of the eunuch, and while the two fight back, Yang ends up doing a vast majority of the heavy lifting. Quick, intelligent and far more capable than her dopey companion, Yang cuts down her foes and avenges her father, even achieving enlightenment at the film’s close.


Extraordinary stories from Berlin's past

Few cities have been so marked by recent history. A visit to Berlin has to include taking in some of the 20th century troubles.

It's difficult to find a destination that has had more wild swings in fortune and history than Berlin.

The capital of Germany has played host to years of unfettered creativity and to some of humanity's darkest times.

Its current state of prosperous reunification provides an excellent travel window to see for yourself all that Berlin was and is -- and maybe get a glimpse of what it will be.

In no particular order, here's a sampling of some of Berlin's top attractions:

Pergamon Museum

You might be surprised to learn that building on the Pergamon, one of the top museums of Europe, was only started in 1910. Construction continued until 1930. But within its walls are impressive exhibits that date back thousands of years.

Among the museum's highlights:

-- The Market Gate of Miletus, a remarkable example of Roman architecture that dates to around 100 A.D.

-- Part of the reconstructed Throne Room facade from the royal palace in Babylon at the time of King Nebuchadnezzar II's reign (605-562 B.C.)

-- The namesake Great Altar of Pergamon, from around 170 B.C. Pergamon, located in modern Turkey, was a major cultural center of the Greek world.

You can also see outstanding examples of Middle Eastern and Islamic art.

Pergamon Museum: Bodestrasse 1-3, 10178 Berlin, Germany +49 30 266424242

Museum Island

The Pergamon is so good it get its own section in this roundup, but it's part of a set on Berlin's "Museum Island" in the Spree River. You may want to make some time for the other four. Here's a quick take on each:

-- Bode-Museum: On the northern tip of Museum Island, highlights include sculpture from the medieval period to the late 18th century as well as Byzantine art.

-- Neues Museum (New Museum): Head here if you love all things Egyptian. Its bust of Queen Nefertiti is the showpiece exhibit.

-- Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery): Opened in 1876, it shows paintings and sculptures from the neoclassical period through early modernist art. See works by Caspar David Friedrich, Edouard Manet, Adolphe Menzel and many others.

-- Altes Museum (Old Museum): As the name might imply, it was the first entry on Museum Island, opened in 1830. It has works from classical antiquity, including a renowned collection of Etruscan art.

Reichstag

Germany is often found at the epicenter of world history, and the Reichstag is often at the epicenter of recent German history.

It was completed in 1894. It's reputed that Kaiser Wilhelm II regarded it as "the pinnacle of bad taste." It was the home of the German parliament until 1933 when fire badly damaged the building. The fire gave Hitler the pretext he sought to suppress dissent. After reunification of East and West Germany, it again became the nation's governing center in 1999.

Along with a storied history, it's a wonder for the eyes. A fairly new addition, its glass dome above the debating chamber is a marvel. If you really want to soak this place in, it's suggested you come for a midweek visit when fewer tourists are around.

Reichstag: Platz der Republik 1, 11011 Berlin, Germany

Brandenburg Gate

It's one of Berlin's most quintessential structures and a symbol of the ebb and flow of history.

Frederick William II commissioned the gate as an entrance to Unter den Linden, which led to the Prussian palace. It was started in 1788 and finished in 1791. The neoclassical gate with 12 Doric columns was still relatively new when Napoleon's French army overtook Berlin in 1804 and he took its crowning statue away as a spoil of war. (It was later returned).

It was part of the scenery for Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s. In the Cold War years of the 20th century, it was the ultimate symbol of a divided city, with the Berlin Wall shutting off access for East and West Berliners. It was the backdrop for President Ronald Reagan's memorable challenge to the Soviets to "tear down this wall."

Today, it's a potential wall of tourists you'll face, but it's worth it to be on ground where so much history has been made.

Berlynse muur

You can find numerous places throughout Berlin with remnants and reminders of the Wall. They include the Brandenburg Gate, Checkpoint Charlie and Potsdamer Platz, to name just three.

Gleeful Berliners started rapidly knocking down the bulk of the hated wall back in 1989 in the wave of revolution that swept throughout Eastern Europe. But at the largest remaining intact portion, you'll find the East Side Gallery.

It's an open-air gallery where you'll find many dozens of inspiring murals painted on the wall.

East Side Gallery: Mühlenstrasse 3-100, 10243 Berlin, Germany +49 30 2517159

Tiergarten

Tiergaren is to Berlin what Central Park is to New York: the city's lungs, the central green gathering place.

The park was once royal hunting grounds until Friedrich III, Duke of Prussia, turned the area into a "park for the pleasure of the general population" in the late 17th century.

World War II took a serious toll on the park, but it has since bounced back. You'll now find locals and tourists jogging, skating and cycling along tree-lined paths.

Tiergarten contains or is very close to numerous tourist attractions, including Brandenburg Gate and Potsdamer Platz.

Tiergarten is just below the Spree in the Mitte borough of central Berlin.

Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum

Why not travel the world while you're in Berlin?

You can take such a "trip" at the Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum, where you'll see climate-controlled rainforests and meadows.

Greenhouses hold everything from orchids to carnivorous plants. And with a scent and tactile garden in the mix, more than your sense of sight will be engaged. The museum holds fascinating fossils and plant models.

Jewish Museum Berlin and Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

It's difficult to come to Berlin without examining one of the darkest pages in humanity's history.

At the Jewish Museum, which opened in 2001, you can follow the harrowing journey that was the Holocaust.

But you'll find there's more here. With its emphasis on educational work and exhibits, you'll also learn about the contributions of Jewish people to culture and society through hundreds of years. The complex's fascinating architecture weaving the old with the new is symbolic of the flow of history here.

You can also visit an immersive, emotionally moving Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe that opened in 2005. The memorial consists of 2,711 concrete slabs of different heights and is open day and night.

Jewish Museum Berlin: Lindenstrasse 9-14, 10969 Berlin, Germany +49 30 25993300

Monsterkabinett

If you've had your fill of Berlin's historical and high-art destinations and you're ready for the city's funky, creative side, make your way to Monsterkabinett.

It's something of a rundown, indoor amusement park, populated with strange, metallic beasts and dressed-up humans. And they happen to enjoy putting on song-and-dance numbers for their guests.

Anyone with an appreciation for the surreal might enjoy this offbeat attraction.

Monsterkabinett: Rosenthaler Str. 39, 10178 Berlin, Germany +49 176 96042630

Fernsehturm (TV tower)

The Fernsehturm was built in the 1960s by the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) as a very tall testimony to socialist progress.

It's one of Berlin's signature structures with its slender body supporting a sphere to remind people of a satellite. It also happens to be a fantastic place to get an incredible panorama of the city below. You can also enjoy a bar and revolving restaurant at the tower.

Fernsehturm: Panoramastrasse 1A, 10178 Berlin, Germany

Badeschiff (outdoor swimming pool)

This is the closest way to get to swimming in the Spree River without actually getting in it. (Its waters don't exactly have the reputation for being the cleanest in Europe).

But at Badeschiif, a barge serves as a floating swimming pool right in the river. At the pool, you can get great views of the Spree, the Oberbaumbrücke bridge and the TV tower.

The beach area around the Badeschiff is also a gathering point for recreation and entertainment for many Berliners.

Badeschiff: Eichenstrasse 4, 12435 Berlin, Germany +49 162 5451374 (check the website for opening and closing times from May to September)

Computerspielemuseum (Computer Games Museum)

Berlin continues to add layers to its history, and the Computerspielemuseum delightfully captures the past few decades of video games.

You'll find more than 300 exhibits, including rare original games and classics you can play (such as Space Invaders and Frogger). You can also enjoy various 3-D simulators.

Computerspielemuseum: Karl-Marx-Allee 93A, 10243 Berlin, Germany +49 30 60988577

Gendarmenmarkt

This square dates back to the late 1600s and is one of Berlin's top tourist draws. Visit here and you'll see why.

For one thing, it's graced by impressive statues and buildings. In the middle of the square, you'll find the statue dedicated to German poet and playwright Friedrich Schiller.

The German Church and the French Church are major structures you'll find on the square. There are also plenty of cafes, shops and hotels here.

It's also home to special events throughout the year -- from summer concerts to a beloved Christmas market in December.


Extraordinary stories from Berlin's past

Few cities have been so marked by recent history. A visit to Berlin has to include taking in some of the 20th century troubles.

It's difficult to find a destination that has had more wild swings in fortune and history than Berlin.

The capital of Germany has played host to years of unfettered creativity and to some of humanity's darkest times.

Its current state of prosperous reunification provides an excellent travel window to see for yourself all that Berlin was and is -- and maybe get a glimpse of what it will be.

In no particular order, here's a sampling of some of Berlin's top attractions:

Pergamon Museum

You might be surprised to learn that building on the Pergamon, one of the top museums of Europe, was only started in 1910. Construction continued until 1930. But within its walls are impressive exhibits that date back thousands of years.

Among the museum's highlights:

-- The Market Gate of Miletus, a remarkable example of Roman architecture that dates to around 100 A.D.

-- Part of the reconstructed Throne Room facade from the royal palace in Babylon at the time of King Nebuchadnezzar II's reign (605-562 B.C.)

-- The namesake Great Altar of Pergamon, from around 170 B.C. Pergamon, located in modern Turkey, was a major cultural center of the Greek world.

You can also see outstanding examples of Middle Eastern and Islamic art.

Pergamon Museum: Bodestrasse 1-3, 10178 Berlin, Germany +49 30 266424242

Museum Island

The Pergamon is so good it get its own section in this roundup, but it's part of a set on Berlin's "Museum Island" in the Spree River. You may want to make some time for the other four. Here's a quick take on each:

-- Bode-Museum: On the northern tip of Museum Island, highlights include sculpture from the medieval period to the late 18th century as well as Byzantine art.

-- Neues Museum (New Museum): Head here if you love all things Egyptian. Its bust of Queen Nefertiti is the showpiece exhibit.

-- Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery): Opened in 1876, it shows paintings and sculptures from the neoclassical period through early modernist art. See works by Caspar David Friedrich, Edouard Manet, Adolphe Menzel and many others.

-- Altes Museum (Old Museum): As the name might imply, it was the first entry on Museum Island, opened in 1830. It has works from classical antiquity, including a renowned collection of Etruscan art.

Reichstag

Germany is often found at the epicenter of world history, and the Reichstag is often at the epicenter of recent German history.

It was completed in 1894. It's reputed that Kaiser Wilhelm II regarded it as "the pinnacle of bad taste." It was the home of the German parliament until 1933 when fire badly damaged the building. The fire gave Hitler the pretext he sought to suppress dissent. After reunification of East and West Germany, it again became the nation's governing center in 1999.

Along with a storied history, it's a wonder for the eyes. A fairly new addition, its glass dome above the debating chamber is a marvel. If you really want to soak this place in, it's suggested you come for a midweek visit when fewer tourists are around.

Reichstag: Platz der Republik 1, 11011 Berlin, Germany

Brandenburg Gate

It's one of Berlin's most quintessential structures and a symbol of the ebb and flow of history.

Frederick William II commissioned the gate as an entrance to Unter den Linden, which led to the Prussian palace. It was started in 1788 and finished in 1791. The neoclassical gate with 12 Doric columns was still relatively new when Napoleon's French army overtook Berlin in 1804 and he took its crowning statue away as a spoil of war. (It was later returned).

It was part of the scenery for Hitler's rise to power in the 1930s. In the Cold War years of the 20th century, it was the ultimate symbol of a divided city, with the Berlin Wall shutting off access for East and West Berliners. It was the backdrop for President Ronald Reagan's memorable challenge to the Soviets to "tear down this wall."

Today, it's a potential wall of tourists you'll face, but it's worth it to be on ground where so much history has been made.

Berlynse muur

You can find numerous places throughout Berlin with remnants and reminders of the Wall. They include the Brandenburg Gate, Checkpoint Charlie and Potsdamer Platz, to name just three.

Gleeful Berliners started rapidly knocking down the bulk of the hated wall back in 1989 in the wave of revolution that swept throughout Eastern Europe. But at the largest remaining intact portion, you'll find the East Side Gallery.

It's an open-air gallery where you'll find many dozens of inspiring murals painted on the wall.

East Side Gallery: Mühlenstrasse 3-100, 10243 Berlin, Germany +49 30 2517159

Tiergarten

Tiergaren is to Berlin what Central Park is to New York: the city's lungs, the central green gathering place.

The park was once royal hunting grounds until Friedrich III, Duke of Prussia, turned the area into a "park for the pleasure of the general population" in the late 17th century.

World War II took a serious toll on the park, but it has since bounced back. You'll now find locals and tourists jogging, skating and cycling along tree-lined paths.

Tiergarten contains or is very close to numerous tourist attractions, including Brandenburg Gate and Potsdamer Platz.

Tiergarten is just below the Spree in the Mitte borough of central Berlin.

Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum

Why not travel the world while you're in Berlin?

You can take such a "trip" at the Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum, where you'll see climate-controlled rainforests and meadows.

Greenhouses hold everything from orchids to carnivorous plants. And with a scent and tactile garden in the mix, more than your sense of sight will be engaged. The museum holds fascinating fossils and plant models.

Jewish Museum Berlin and Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

It's difficult to come to Berlin without examining one of the darkest pages in humanity's history.

At the Jewish Museum, which opened in 2001, you can follow the harrowing journey that was the Holocaust.

But you'll find there's more here. With its emphasis on educational work and exhibits, you'll also learn about the contributions of Jewish people to culture and society through hundreds of years. The complex's fascinating architecture weaving the old with the new is symbolic of the flow of history here.

You can also visit an immersive, emotionally moving Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe that opened in 2005. The memorial consists of 2,711 concrete slabs of different heights and is open day and night.

Jewish Museum Berlin: Lindenstrasse 9-14, 10969 Berlin, Germany +49 30 25993300

Monsterkabinett

If you've had your fill of Berlin's historical and high-art destinations and you're ready for the city's funky, creative side, make your way to Monsterkabinett.

It's something of a rundown, indoor amusement park, populated with strange, metallic beasts and dressed-up humans. And they happen to enjoy putting on song-and-dance numbers for their guests.

Anyone with an appreciation for the surreal might enjoy this offbeat attraction.

Monsterkabinett: Rosenthaler Str. 39, 10178 Berlin, Germany +49 176 96042630

Fernsehturm (TV tower)

The Fernsehturm was built in the 1960s by the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) as a very tall testimony to socialist progress.

It's one of Berlin's signature structures with its slender body supporting a sphere to remind people of a satellite. It also happens to be a fantastic place to get an incredible panorama of the city below. You can also enjoy a bar and revolving restaurant at the tower.

Fernsehturm: Panoramastrasse 1A, 10178 Berlin, Germany

Badeschiff (outdoor swimming pool)

This is the closest way to get to swimming in the Spree River without actually getting in it. (Its waters don't exactly have the reputation for being the cleanest in Europe).

But at Badeschiif, a barge serves as a floating swimming pool right in the river. At the pool, you can get great views of the Spree, the Oberbaumbrücke bridge and the TV tower.

The beach area around the Badeschiff is also a gathering point for recreation and entertainment for many Berliners.

Badeschiff: Eichenstrasse 4, 12435 Berlin, Germany +49 162 5451374 (check the website for opening and closing times from May to September)

Computerspielemuseum (Computer Games Museum)

Berlin continues to add layers to its history, and the Computerspielemuseum delightfully captures the past few decades of video games.

You'll find more than 300 exhibits, including rare original games and classics you can play (such as Space Invaders and Frogger). You can also enjoy various 3-D simulators.

Computerspielemuseum: Karl-Marx-Allee 93A, 10243 Berlin, Germany +49 30 60988577

Gendarmenmarkt

This square dates back to the late 1600s and is one of Berlin's top tourist draws. Visit here and you'll see why.

For one thing, it's graced by impressive statues and buildings. In the middle of the square, you'll find the statue dedicated to German poet and playwright Friedrich Schiller.

The German Church and the French Church are major structures you'll find on the square. There are also plenty of cafes, shops and hotels here.

It's also home to special events throughout the year -- from summer concerts to a beloved Christmas market in December.


Kyk die video: Hongerkinderen (Junie 2022).


Kommentaar:

  1. Chayo

    Ek beveel aan dat u 'n webwerf soek waar daar baie artikels oor 'n tema sal wees wat u interessant vind.

  2. Daran

    Ek sal weet, baie dankie vir die verduideliking.

  3. Gara

    Ongelooflike sin)

  4. Treadway

    Waarom sal al die louere na die skrywer gaan, en ons sal hom ook haat?



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